Emotions and Academics across Cultures

Participants, we hope you all enjoyed meeting each other during our workshop today!

Please respond to the following questions about today’s exchange:

  • What have you learned so far about the relationship between culture and emotion?
  • What kinds of preconceived notions or expectations did you have about Hong Kong Chinese or American culture going into the exchange today? Were those expectations confirmed or contradicted?
  • What preconceived notions or expectations do you think the students in the other culture probably had about you or your own culture before the exchange? Discuss common misconceptions about your culture.
  • Feel free to bring up any other questions or comments that came up during the exchange.

Please sign your name and school at the end of your post.

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27 Responses to Emotions and Academics across Cultures

  1. Chan Lai Fan 1009618392 says:

    I am happy to have a chance to participate this culture exchange.
    Some emotions are universal and are experienced in similar ways as a reaction to similar events across all cultures. On the other hand, other emotions show considerable cultural differences in their antecedent events, the way they are experienced, the reactions they provoke and the way they are perceived by the surrounding society.
    Before the exchange, I thought that American students would ask or answer the questions actively while most of our students would give an implicit answer. Eventually, this is confirmed during the exchange.
    Some people think that Chinese people are uncreative. However, I think that it is a misconception. Take the ad which we discussed as an example, I think it is funny and creative. Besides, we can get a profound effect after watching the ad.

  2. Alex Kennedy says:

    I really enjoyed our cross-cultural exchange. Despite some technical difficulties, it was quite an interactive and engaging activity. One thing that struck me during this activity was the close relationship between culture and emotion, and how culture could influence our experience of emotion. For example, in comparing advertisements from the United States and Hong Kong, it was evident that the same stimulus could elicit very different emotional responses in different cultures. This also highlighted cultural differences and variation between our respective societal norms, illustrated through advertising and marketing strategies. Though I anticipated differences in content of popular advertisements, I was very surprised to learn about the complex advertising strategies employed in Hong Kong. Namely, I would never have guessed that intricate backstories that rely on things like TV ads would be a typical marketing device. I was also surprised by the results of our pre-exchange questionnaires. I somewhat expected a more consistent trend of difference in the way Chinese and American students described themselves, but only some description categories showed a great disparity between the two groups of students. Additionally, there was were significant similarities in the responses to the short answers regarding college and future plans, which was rather surprising to me. Though I didn’t have a clear notion of what other students would say to those questions, I assumed there would generally be distinct trends for the respective groups.

  3. Cheung Po Yan 1155003741 says:

    Despite the technical problems encountered in the cultural exchange, the whole process was very enjoyable.
    I observed in the aspect of participation, Standord students were more active to participate in the discussion. They were more willing to express their ideas than CUHK students. This might be due to the cultural differences between American people and Chinese people. In the advertisement part, I found that the actress in the Hong Kong ad showed her Iove towards her ex-boyfriend was very implicit which showed Chinese people expressed their emotion in a more implicit way than American people. On the contrary, a very positive and professional image was expressed by the actress in American ad, which showed American liked ads which had more direct and clear way to show the good aspects of the products.
    For the reasons for coming to college, American students and Hong Kong students shared similar reasons which surprised me because I thought American students would have some reasons that Hong Kong students would not think of.

  4. Jazmin Youngblood says:

    The cross cultural exchange gave a small glimpse into the implicit and explicit differences between Chinese and American culture. I, like Cheung Po Van, found that the Stanford students had longer responses and questions that the CUHK students. However, I attributed that disparity because Stanford students have a better command of English and could express more thoughts than Chinese students. If the exchange had been in Chinese, I am sure more CUHK students would have been more talkative.
    As to the ads, I found the Chinese ads very interesting and complex. It seems that the idea of a positive image and emotional connection is key for the Chinese while Americans admire reason and power. It seems as though Americans need a logical approach to ads where the ad gives a simple goal to achieve. For example, you would be the Micheal Kors watch to add glamour to your life. However, the Chinese like the emotional appeal and want a genuine backstory. For example, both pharmacy and watch ads appear more like movies than advertisements for products.
    The reasoning for college was very similar on both sides, which didn’t completely surprise me because I believe people of a certain age group have similar goals. Overall, it was a great learning experience

  5. Magdalena Contreras says:

    The cross-cultural exchange was a fun experience, and I am glad we had the opportunity to take part in it. It was interesting to note different reactions to our ads versus Hong Kong Chinese ads, which just goes to show how everyday aspects of culture can affect a person’s emotion and, in this case, preferences. However, I am glad that things outside of our culture do not necessarily elicit outrage or shock but perhaps curious interest. I expected Hong Kong Chinese culture to be expressed more implicitly than American culture, in regards to advertisements. Actually, it turned out that Hong Kong Chinese ads had more explicit information, even narration, than American ads which presented just one image and left most up to interpretation. I would assume that CUHK students would expect American culture to be very out there, perhaps include very bold advertisements, which I think varies like in every culture. Despite some encompassing trends in each environment, however, the exchange and questionnaire showed me that students’ motivations and views of themselves are pretty similar no matter their being from CUHK or Stanford.

  6. Joyce Lau (1155003488) says:

    It was a very thought provoking discussion that I enjoyed very much. Having been studying in the U.S for a semester, I expected the Stanford students to be more proactive and enthusiastic in raising and answering questions. On the other hand, the CUHK students would be relatively more quiet and passive. In general, I found my expectation true in the discussion. However, I was quite surprise to see quite a number of CUHK male students actively responding throughout the discussion. As from my past learning experience, it was common for female students to be more active in class. I found this quite an interesting phenomenon.

    Apart from seeing the difference of the classroom activeness in the discussion, I also think the students in other culture probably had the misconceptions that Chinese is they live a fast pacing life that most of them would prefer direct and simple advertisement. In fact, many advertisement in the Chinese society is usually consisted of a short story about loving family or friends, for example in China the ads of online ordering KFC is about a short episode of a group of close friends at home ordering KFC. The method of story-line is one of the most popular and appealing way of promoting products in Chinese culture. It may be because of the deep rooted collective culture of Chinese.

  7. Natasha Weiss says:

    It is wonderful to read the responses of CUHK students and see that they so acutely aware of the misconceptions many Americans have of Chinese culture, and of the ways in which both the ad they selected and their participating in the exchange countered those misconceptions. I will admit that I expected the Chinese ads to be a bit more sterile and unimaginative than they were, and I also expected the CUHK students to be even more career-oriented than Stanford students. Of course, the Chinese ads proved to be far most focused on the story/human connection that the American ads did, and CUHK and Stanford students shared similar reasons for going to college. It was both refreshing and humbling to see the ways in which my judgments of Chinese culture were disproved by the exchange.
    The exchange also showed me some valuable truths about my perceptions of my own culture. Coming from San Francisco, I think I oftentimes assume that the rest of the country is like my hometown community, focused primarily on the arts and talking about our feelings. I forget that Americans have a reputation of being materialistic and superficial, or that Stanford students are probably some of the most career-oriented people in the world. The exchange reminded me that San Francisco is certainly not America, and that it is ignorant to so closely acquaint the two.

  8. katie topper says:

    So far, I have seen that culture largely shapes the expression of emotions rather than the emotions themselves. Culture seems to dictate the norms for what emotions are shared and what should be kept to one’s self. It also hints at which emotional states are the norm and which are desirable. These desirable states were employed by the ads from both countries. The Chinese ads focused more on deeper, human connection and the American ones focused on feelings of empowerment, independence, and the appeal of a glamorous lifestyle.
    Going into the exchange I had a few ideas of how I thought students in Hong Kong would interact and behave. I expected them to be extremely hardworking, serious, and to have a certain restrained composure. In fact, the students came off as rather carefree and giggly, which completed contradicted my preconceived notions. I think that American students are often perceived to be superficial, materialistic, and obnoxious so it is likely that the Hong Kong students expected this from us. However, I do not believe any of these qualities came through during the exchange.

  9. Weston says:

    I was really grateful to have the opportunity to speak with CUHK students! I was interested to hear the differing reactions of American and Chinese students as they explained why they enjoyed or did not enjoy particular advertisements. While both sets of ads were intended to associate positive emotions and connotations with the products they advertised, they did so in very different ways–the Chinese ads through complex narratives and the American ads through single, viscerally affecting images. I would love to see if the preference toward narrative versus gut response is represented in other aspects of culture, such as art or film. Coming into the exchange, I expected that there would be some kind of uniformity of response from CUHK, that students across the class would participate equally. Instead, I found the the class to be much more like lectures in my own experience, in which a few students are particularly eager to speak and discuss. I was impressed and inspired by the passion and interest of these students, and wished we could have had more time for conversation. I was not surprised to see that the CUHK students expected us to be especially active in both questioning and answering–this might be seen as a form of aggression or ambition to someone observing our culture from the outside but I see it as a cultural need to be INVOLVED, the pressure not to be a passive observer. I’m glad that the students on both ends seemed to enjoy this exchange and I hope that I get the chance to do something like this again…

    Weston Gaylord, Stanford

  10. Paige Nethercutt says:

    In the exchange with students from CUHK, I gained insight into how emotion is valued and conveyed differently among cultures. From the American perspective, it seems as though emotion in advertising is utilized in a clear and logical manner, very much fitting the method with the message. It does not take a very sophisticated analysis to understand the emotion in an American ad. In contrast, the emotions conveyed in the Chinese ads were much more complex and implicit, and outsiders to the culture would, like us Stanford students, have difficulty interpreting the emotion and message of the ad without the explanation from a cultural insider.

    Before the exchange, I thought that the Hong Kong students would be able to understand American ads with little difficulty, because they seem very explicit and logical from my own perspective. I did not expect that the Hong Kong students would dislike our ads, but after the exchange I understand how the American vocabulary and lifestyle as portrayed through the ads can fail to be persuasive to someone outside the culture.

    The Hong Kong students might have expected the group of Stanford students to have a higher male-to-female ratio based on a possible college attendance stereotype. They might have been surprised when they saw that there was only one male in our class.

    Paige, Stanford

  11. Yeung Ki 1009616524 says:

    It was a special and interesting learning experience to have inter-class video conferencing with Stanford students.
    Concerning the ads, I agreed that Hong Kong Chinese ads are more complicated and put more focus on emotional connection than the American ads. However, I would like to add that the ads we were comparing were in different forms and this may affect the evaluation, even though the ads were for the same products. The American ads chosen this time were printed ads and they were probably seen inside magazines or on the billboards. The time that they are exposed to their audience may be just a few seconds. Therefore, simple message and direct expression would certainly be more preferable as it is easier for audience to digest in a brief period of time. In fact, many printed ads in Hong Kong are as direct and impressive as the American medical ads, for example, the private tutor king ads which show only a few professional faces in suit and a slogan like “The Best? You bet” ,etc.
    Though the discussion was generally fun and fruitful, it would be better if we are comparing ads of the same form to eliminate the abovementioned factor.

  12. Chan Wing Hong 1009632121 says:

    I enjoyed the cross-cultural exchange too. I have been interested in how emotion is developed and how emotion is influenced by culture before. It was no surprise to me that the strong relation between culture and emotion, but the example of advertisement impressed me. I have studied about how gender is related to advertisement, and combining the complex advertising strategies the class illustrated made me wonders more how the gender stereotype in advertisement under different culture can elicit different emotional response. So far what I known is how gender stereotype was illustrated in marketing strategy but ignored the part of how people responses differently to this. Well, back to topic, the fundamental difference between Hong Kong Chinese Ads and American Ads were that how the ratio of implicit information to explicit information varied, and how the information was presented. Unfortunately the class was no able to provide more accurate comparison on same, if not similar, kind of advertisement. Say, comparing printed ads to tv ads would not be very beneficial to learning about cultural difference. Unexpectedly, American Ads are much limited in way to present information dynamically. I used to believe that story-line advertisement is common in America too, but now I come to understand perhaps the deep root of collective culture in Hong Kong (Chinese) made us have more resonance towards the warm, loving family. And it was fun to see how the misconception of Chinese culture was disproved in the class too. My friends told me a lot about how American discriminate them, both intentionally and unintentionally, when he was studying in America. But with no doubt such stereotype must exist when culture differs, since we are always the OTHERS/OUTSIDER of another culture, and sadly what we can do is to try minimizing the negative discrimination. And last I would say, the class was really enjoyable, and made me more interested in looking at how advertisement-culture-emotional response are differed across culture and gender.

  13. Tam Chun Man (CUHK) 1009615883 says:

    Throughout the exchange, it could be observed that culture influences emotion mainly in two ways:

    (1) Culture determines people’s expression of emotion in terms of display rules. Females have been considered as emotional icons. In the HK ads, though female characters are the focus, they are weak and passive in nature. Yet in the American ads, female characters have a strong and active role. They give an idea how/what emotions should be expressed across cultures.

    (2) Culture determines people’s feeling/preference in terms of feeling rules. For the same kind of products, HK students prefer family/relation-focused television (indirect) ads, while American students prefer individual-focused magazine (direct) ads. Culture therefore, gives an idea what feeling is appropriate.

  14. LIN Hiu Tung Chelsea (1009614113) says:

    It was an amazing cultural exchange between American and Chinese students! I was impressed by the ways in which emtions are related to cultures in ads.

    In Hong Kong, a lot of ads include storylines. Using a storyline is a powerful marketing strategy here. When people are impressed by the story, they will remember and have discussions on it. As a result, at most of the time, a positive image is developed on the product or the company. This can boost the sales.

    Instead of developing a good image of the product, American ads persuade the public with powerful reasons. Actually, I think the message of the ad is very clear but to most of the Hong Kong people, it is not as impressive as a story-based ad.

    It was not surprised that Hong Kong people prefer the story-based ad due to its collective culture which emphasizes the relationships among people. However, after discussion with Stanford students, it seems that Hong Kong ads are a little bit irrational to them!

    In my opinion, what Hong Kong people care about is their feeling towards the product instead of its quality as products in local market are of similar qualities. So, many ads are actually selling their positive images which can only base on emtions without any reasons!

    Chelsea, CUHK

  15. Ling Chi Tung, Joanna (CUHK) says:

    This is the first time for me to have a video conference with a foreign University, it really adds value to our traditional lecture. Before the cultural exchange, I expected that the American students would be very active in expressing their ideas, while Hong Kong students would be passive, many of us would even remain silence during the whole exchange. I believe that Stanford students probably had the same expectation, as it is well known that under the Chinese education culture, students are “well trained” to be a good listener instead of a speaker, we tend to speak much less than the Western students. After the cultural exchange, I think this notion is true but the contrast between the American and Hong Kong students was not that strong, some Hong Kong students actively participated in the discussion.

    What I have learned so far is that although emotions are universal phenomena, they are shaped by culture, therefore it is common for people from different countries to display different emotions under the same situation. In the cultural exchange, we spent a lot of time in the advertisement part. Unfortunately, TV commercials with print ads are not suitable for direct comparison. But we can still find that the messages of American ads are direct and they stress on individual achievements, while the messages of Hong Kong ads are implicit and they stress on relationships. This may show the cultural differences! Also, American students may not know that although Hong Kong is a fast-paced city, people prefer TV commercials with impressive story lines instead of those direct and hard-selling ads, even those story based commercials take time for us to understand the content. Marketers like using advertisements with warm stories to build a positive brand image.

  16. Chan Kam Wing (1155002328) says:

    It was a wonderful experience to have a cultural exchange activity with students from Standford University and my classmates in CUHK. This activity enabled me to understand more about the American and Chinese culture, and the relationship between culture and emotion.

    By comparing the advertisements in America and HongKong, I noticed that the biggest difference is that HK ads tend to take a more ‘sensational’ approach by adopting some touching storylines that can move the audience. On the other hand, American ads tend to take a more professional and ‘rational’ approach by stating the facts and selling points of the products directly.

    We also found that HK students prefer story-like advertisements more than the American advertisements. I think it may due to the cultural difference that Chinese are more emotionally attached to things around us while Americans may value reasons and the effectiveness of the products more. Therefore, the same advertisement may receive much better responses in one culture than the other because it evokes different kinds of emotions.

    Chan Kam Wing, CUHK

  17. Feng Li Li (1009611622) says:

    It was an impressive video conference, though there were some technical problems.

    From social psychology, I’ve learnt that “Culture is an important factor to determine people’s emotion”. And this did occur during our video conference. Westerners and easterners showed distinct different preference about those ads.

    Before the meeting, I thought American students might be more active, but Hong Kong Chinese just became listener and seldom expressed their thoughts. And those expectations did confirm during the video conference. Most students in Stanford might think it was because Hong Kong students were shy. But I found the number of students we have in the class may become the reason. Stanford only had around 10 students in that class, but we had around 40. The diffusion of responsibility might make us feel that we didn’t have to share our opinion because others would do that.

    Feng Lili, CUHK

  18. It is a valuable chance to observe students from two different cultures through the cultural exchange.
    I had a preconceived notion that American students should be far more active than Chinese students, as Chinese students are taught that they should behave by silencing and suppressing their emotions while American students may be taught that they should express themselves freely so as to show their individuality. Yet, I don’t find a very distinct difference between the two groups of students as both sides are quite willing to express their opinions. I think the difference is blunted as a result of a change in pedagogy for Chinese students. Chinese students are now encouraged more to actively participate in the lessons to share their own thoughts than before, when they just sit there and listen to their teachers attentively. It is normal to see that participation counts into a part of the assessment method in many courses. I think this part of encouraging and reinforcing students to express their opinions.

  19. This experience gives me an impression that culture and emotion are highly related. For example, we can see that the way of expressing emotion and the content of emotion are much different in these cultures. Chinese as a collectivist culture focuses more on the feelings of the others. That’s why the chinese ads are presented in an implicit manner (do not like direct conflicts) and in the mean time the emotion is about caring, love. While Western culture focuses more on achievement, the show of confidence. Their ads are about power, and in explicit form.
    In the class it was obvious that Chinese spoke less and most of the time they did not speak. While Stanford’ students were eager to express their opinions. I think this phenomenen was expected on both sides before the class.
    However, I did not think it is due to a common misconception about Chinese culture that chinese do not like expressing themselves. Instead I think the class size mattered. At that time there were over 60 students in CU’s class while there were more or less 20 students in Stanford’s class. I thought CU’ students would be more active if the class size was reduced. As I said above chinese focuses much more on caring. Students were no different. They cared for others’ chance of speaking with Stanford’ students. If they spoke, then the others would not have the chance to share. That’s why CU’ students were quiet most of the time. They did not want to get others’ chance of speaking. If next time we hold this kind of event again we’d better cut the class so as to encourage speaking.

  20. It was quite surprised to have a culture exchange experience with Stanford students in my first lecture of the course and it was good to have a hand-on experience to learn about different cultures.

    Chinese culture emphasizes the importance of interpersonal relationship and they will pay more effort on building relationships with other people. They seem to be more relying on the emotion that they feel when they encounter some situations. Direct emotions can sometime decide what they will do next or later. I think it may be a reason why advertisements in Chinese culture love to use a story-type method to include the emotion cues in them and try to persuade the customers to buy their products or services. However, American culture supports independence and they are more rational and seem to be less likely to be provoked or disturbed by emotions.

    It was expected that Hong Kong students would be more passive and shy and they would have less participation in the exchange section while American students would actively participate in it. I think American students would have the same expectations as above. These expectations were proved to be true after the cultural exchange. Maybe the number of students would somehow affect the degree of participation in the discussion.

  21. It was quite surprised to have a culture exchange experience with Stanford students in my first lecture of the course and it was good to have a hand-on experience to learn about different cultures.

    Chinese culture emphasizes the importance of interpersonal relationship and they will pay more effort on building relationships with other people. They seem to be more relying on the emotion that they feel when they encounter some situations. Direct emotions can sometime decide what they will do next or later. I think it may be a reason why advertisements in Chinese culture love to use a story-type method to include the emotion cues in them and try to persuade the customers to buy their products or services. However, American culture supports independence and they are more rational and seem to be less likely to be provoked or disturbed by emotions.

    It was expected that Hong Kong students would be more passive and shy and they would have less participation in the exchange section while American students would actively participate in it. I think American students would have the same expectations as above. These expectations were proved to be true after the cultural exchange. Maybe the number of students would somehow affect the degree of participation in the discussion.

    YIP Pui Linh, Linda (1155011745) CUHK

  22. Esther Luk, CUHK (1009616943) says:

    Quite a number of Stanford students found it fresh to see such long ads that we shared in the session, but it is not that special to us to see such ads in Hong Kong. In fact, recently I watched an almost 10-min ad of Pepsi, which is quite touching. If you are interested, especially to the Stanford students, you may visit the following youtube:

    Though the ad is in Chinese, I hope Stanford students can also enjoy it. The story is mainly about an old man waiting for his son and daughters to visit him in the Chinese New Year, which is a festival that put special emphasis on family gatherings.
    In this cultural exchange, it is easily noticeable that many ads in Chinese culture emphasizes close relationships, whereas ads in American culture, or at least from the choice of Stanford in this session, are more related to ability and power. This is consistent with the contrast of collectivistic Chinese culture and individualistic American culture, as I have learnt in other psyhcology courses. Consequently, in terms of the expression of emotions, Chinese people may tend to hide their emotions, which is favourable to maintaining harmony and avoiding contradictions, whereas American people may be more likely to show their emotions, because they are less restricted by the concern of relationships.

  23. CHENG Hung Yee (1155002238) says:

    It was awesome to have the opportunity to take a class with some of the smartest students in the world. Unfortunately I was a bit late last time and sat at the very back of the classroom so I didn’t talk. (Maybe an excuse though)

    It somewhat surprised me that American students found the long, story ad unusual. I thought it was the same all over the world. And it also somewhat surprised me that Americans like to use ordinary people in ads. I thought it would be all like Elle magazines, Glamour girl, in which sexy girls or guys are used.

    It was like what I expected in the reasons for going to college and the describe self parts because I always thought that those have a lot to do with the circumstances one is in. I think that Stanford students and many CUHK students share one important thing in common — both survive in very competitive environment (even more so for Stanford I bet). I think Stanford students probably are not very typical Americans. I heard quite a lot people say that Americans, a small population are really smart, but the rest are just arrogant and ignorant. I do not know many Americans so I won’t comment on that. But it’s funny that Katie Topper commented that Americans are superficial, materialistic and obnoxious. I did not think that way. I have always thought that Americans are fun, have a sense of humour. Weston Gaylord made a point that I never really thought about, which is, Americans have the pressure not to be passive observer. The way Weston put it, is interesting to me — the use of the word ‘pressure’.

    I think many Westerners have the impression that Chinese people are quiet, shy, conservative. I think it is not true because it is just that many Chinese people do not speak very good english and sometimes we might say ‘stupid things’ which make them think we are stupid. As for conservative, it really depends which part of China you are going. I heard that even in mainland China, many people are having premarital sex. I think Western culture/American culture does influence the world a lot with the Hollywood movies.

  24. Li Chiu Ming CUHK 1155016576 says:

    Chinese are always being said to be passive and introversive in expressing their feelings. As shown in the two commercials, the cat and the boy don’t show their emotion explicitly or verbalize it concretely. Instead, they will hide it from the recipients. For example, the cat will search for the medicine when her master doesn’t know and will search for the medicine on her own. And the girl doesn’t say much in front of the boy. She remains silent and hides her misery. The emotion is expressed in such a unobtrusive way because Chinese are taught to suppress their inner feelings. For instance, we are prohibited to laugh out loud or cry easily at wish. Parents will tell us that is inappropriate as we will lose face by doing so. This is how the traditional Chinese culture influences our emotional expression.

    I have the expectation that American commercials are more fancy and exaggerated, as I am primed by the reality shows ‘Project Runway’ and ‘The America’s Next Top Model’. Thus I got the impression that Americans are more creative. But the videoconference told me a totally different story. The advertisements presented by American students are quite simple and direct, with no catchy marketing strategies. The pharmacists are still keeping their professional image with the clean white robe. Watches are still presented in a romantic way with a guy holding a lady. It really surprises me when I see the advertisements as I had expected some bold and abstract content.

    Non-Chinese students may have expected our silence. We performed relatively passive in the videoconference. The silence may be misinterpreted as reluctancy in learning. But the very truth is, we tend to speak things out when things are truly verified. We want to express our thought accurately that is free of errors. May be we are afraid of losing face. However, we are still active learners filled with curiosity.

    It was really a remarkable experience to have this exchange with students in US. The difference of performance between us makes me reflect on our learning mode. Besides, it had given me one more reference for the cultural difference.

  25. Lam Tsz Kit Ronald SID: 1009625741 says:

    I was a little bit wary of possible selection biases throughout the cultural exchange. Given that we are all knowledgeable on the possible cultural differences between the east and the west, I kept wondering whether we might have focused on the differences instead of similarities. For example, although it seemed that HK advertisements have more storyline than those in the US, it might have been so because of differences in the advertising medium. TV commercials in HK allow development of storylines while static magazine commercials in US don’t. Also as we have discussed, there’s a range of advertisements in both cultures. We can also find images of professional pharmacists (and most notably, ‘professional’ after class tutorial school teachers) in HK, whereas there are also US medical ads that appeals to happy families as mentioned in the video conference. To conclude, I really feel that we need to constantly review whether cultures are becoming more similar in an increasingly globalized world.

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